Saving for retirement is by far one of the most boring things to do.
But it's a necessity. By investing for the long term, you can experience the growth of the stock market and take advantage of tax benefits along the way.
For us creators, it's tough to put away money for the future when putting that money towards the business could provide higher, more immediate returns.
However though, the keyword is "could" - business results are never guaranteed. Returns in the stock market are also never guaranteed, but historically it's returned around 8%. Get into crypto and the returns could be even higher (and more volatile).
But figuring out which type of account to open can be challenging as they all have their own pros and cons so in this article, we're breaking down 3 of the best retirement accounts self-employed individuals can open.
Individuals just getting started, investors looking to diversify amongst account types
$6,000 in 2021 ($7,000 for those over the age of 50)
The biggest difference between a Roth and Traditional IRA is when you receive the tax benefits.
For a traditional IRA, when you contribute, you can write off that year's contributions against your taxable income. You then have to pay taxes at retirement.
For a Roth IRA, you contribute money that has already been taxed. Then at retirement, you can withdraw the amount you invested, as well as all the earnings, completely tax-free (because you already paid taxes before you contributed the money into the account).
If you withdraw *earnings* from an IRA prior to age 59½, it's taxed as ordinary income plus a 10% penalty
Both kinds of IRAs can be opened at standard online brokerages such as Vanguard, Schwab, or Fidelity
If you want to invest in crypto in your IRA, Alto IRA offers crypto-compatible retirement accounts
The first thing to consider when choosing between a Traditional or Roth IRA is your income. Currently Roth IRAs have income limits of $140,000 for individuals and $208,000 for those who are married and file jointly. If you make more than those limits and want to contribute to a Roth IRA for the tax advantages, this can currently be done through a Roth conversion (though the Roth conversion could be eliminated if the American Families Plan is passed in full).
If your income doesn't make the decision for you, determining which account to open really comes down to your preference on when the funds are taxed.
For Roth IRAs, you contribute after-tax money and at retirement, you can withdraw the money tax-free. You can also withdraw your contributions (not any earnings) at any time without penalty because they would already have been taxed when you made the contribution. So it's almost like a glorified savings account that can be invested in the stock market - pretty cool.
For Traditional IRAs, you can receive a tax deduction on contributions in the current year and then at retirement, you have to pay taxes on withdrawals.
If you think you'll be in a higher tax bracket at retirement or that tax rates in general will go up over time, a Roth IRA might make the most sense so you can pay taxes at today's rate and no taxes in the future.
Now, I mentioned Alto Crypto IRA, but why? Because IRA's are one of the most tax-efficient places to invest in crypto. Contributions to a traditional IRA are still tax-deductible and with a Roth IRA, you can trade crypto without incurring hefty capital gains and you don't have to pay taxes at retirement.
Also read: Pros & Cons of Crypto in an IRA
Self-employed individuals with no employees
In 2022, the contribution limit is $61,000 (add'l $6,500 if over age 50) or 100% of earned income - whichever is less
Just like the IRA's, there are both Traditional and Roth Solo 401(k)'s
Traditional 401(k): Contributions are made pre-tax, reducing your taxable income in the current year - withdrawals in retirement after reaching age 59 1/2 are taxed
Roth 401(k): Contributions are made with after-tax dollars, meaning no tax break in the current year - but at retirement, the money can be withdrawn completely tax-free
If you have full-time employees, you cannot contribute to a Solo 401(k)
Solo 401(k)s can be opened at most standard online brokers - Schwab, Fidelity, Vanguard, MySolo401k - and you'll need to file paperwork with the IRS each year once the account value is more than $250,000
The IRS allows one exception to the no-employees rule on the solo 401(k): your spouse. If he or she earns income from your business you can still have a Solo 401(k).
With its high contribution limits, the Solo 401(k) is a top choice for many self-employed people.
Employers (including self-employed individuals) with zero or few employees
$61,000 or 25% of compensation or net self-employment earnings (up to $290k of earnings) - whichever is the lesser amount
In general, you can deduct your contributions from the current year's income and withdrawals in retirement are taxed as income
If you have employees, you must contribute on their behalf and it must be equal to what you contributed for yourself
A SEP IRA can also opened at standard online brokerages such as Vanguard, Schwab, or Fidelity
SEP IRAs are relatively easy to set up, they have higher contribution limits than other IRAs, low admin costs, and allow employers to determine how much to contribute each year. Sole proprietors, partnerships, and corporations can start a SEP IRA and they're treated just like traditional IRAs for tax purposes.
In general, a SEP IRA is just like a traditional IRA except that employers can contribute to a SEP for an employee.
If we're speaking strictly traditional retirement accounts, it doesn't get much better than a Solo 401(k).
It has high contribution limits, both Roth and Traditional options, and provides flexibility in investment options.
IRAs are great, but they have relatively low contribution limits. However, you can have a Solo 401(k) and an IRA and take advantage of both.
Investing for retirement isn't supposed to be flashy. It's a way to put your money to work for you over the years so it can experience the growth of the stock market.
You shouldn't frequently check retirement accounts. They're meant to grow in the background and when you have 20-30+ years until you need the money, the day-to-day or month-to-month performance shouldn't matter.
Get invested, automate your contributions, diversify and rebalance over time, and stay the course.